granary package

Reference documentation.

as1

Utilities for ActivityStreams 1 objects.

granary.as1.object_type(obj)[source]

Returns the object type, or the verb if it’s an activity object.

Details: http://activitystrea.ms/specs/json/1.0/#activity-object

Parameters

obj – decoded JSON ActivityStreams object

Returns

ActivityStreams object type

Return type

string

granary.as1.merge_by_id(obj, field, new)[source]

Merges new items by id into a field in an existing AS1 object.

Merges new items by id into the given field. If it exists, it must be a list. Requires all existing and new items in the field to have ids.

Parameters
  • obj – dict, AS1 object

  • field – str, name of field to merge new items into

  • new – sequence of AS1 dicts

granary.as1.is_public(obj)[source]

Returns True if the object is public, False if private, None if unknown.

…according to the Audience Targeting extension: http://activitystrea.ms/specs/json/targeting/1.0/

Expects values generated by this library: objectType group, alias @public, @unlisted, or @private.

Also, important point: this defaults to true, ie public. Bridgy depends on that and prunes the to field from stored activities in Response objects (in bridgy/util.prune_activity()). If the default here ever changes, be sure to update Bridgy’s code.

granary.as1.add_rsvps_to_event(event, rsvps)[source]

Adds RSVP objects to an event’s attending fields, in place.

Parameters
  • event – ActivityStreams event object

  • rsvps – sequence of ActivityStreams RSVP activity objects

granary.as1.get_rsvps_from_event(event)[source]

Returns RSVP objects for an event’s attending fields.

Parameters

event – ActivityStreams event object

Returns

sequence of ActivityStreams RSVP activity objects

granary.as1.activity_changed(before, after, log=False)[source]

Returns whether two activities or objects differ meaningfully.

Only compares a few fields: object type, verb, content, location, and image. Notably does not compare author and published/updated timestamps.

This has been tested on Facebook posts, comments, and event RSVPs (only content and rsvp_status change) and Google+ posts and comments (content, updated, and etag change). Twitter tweets and Instagram photo captions and comments can’t be edited.

Parameters
  • before – dicts, ActivityStreams activities or objects

  • after – dicts, ActivityStreams activities or objects

Returns

boolean

granary.as1.append_in_reply_to(before, after)[source]

Appends the inReplyTos from the before object to the after object, in place

Parameters
  • before – dicts, ActivityStreams activities or objects

  • after – dicts, ActivityStreams activities or objects

granary.as1.actor_name(actor)[source]

Returns the given actor’s name if available, otherwise Unknown.

granary.as1.original_post_discovery(activity, domains=None, include_redirect_sources=True, include_reserved_hosts=True, max_redirect_fetches=None, **kwargs)[source]

Discovers original post links.

This is a variation on http://indiewebcamp.com/original-post-discovery . It differs in that it finds multiple candidate links instead of one, and it doesn’t bother looking for MF2 (etc) markup because the silos don’t let you input it. More background: https://github.com/snarfed/bridgy/issues/51#issuecomment-136018857

Original post candidates come from the upstreamDuplicates, attachments, and tags fields, as well as links and permashortlinks/permashortcitations in the text content.

Parameters
  • activity – activity dict

  • domains – optional sequence of domains. If provided, only links to these domains will be considered original and stored in upstreamDuplicates. (Permashortcitations are exempt.)

  • include_redirect_sources – boolean, whether to include URLs that redirect as well as their final destination URLs

  • include_reserved_hosts – boolean, whether to include domains on reserved TLDs (eg foo.example) and local hosts (eg http://foo.local/, http://my-server/)

  • max_redirect_fetches – if specified, only make up to this many HTTP fetches to resolve redirects.

  • kwargs – passed to requests.head() when following redirects

Returns

([string original post URLs], [string mention URLs]) tuple

as2

Convert between ActivityStreams 1 and 2.

AS2: http://www.w3.org/TR/activitystreams-core/

AS1: http://activitystrea.ms/specs/json/1.0/

http://activitystrea.ms/specs/json/schema/activity-schema.html

granary.as2.from_as1(obj, type=None, context='https://www.w3.org/ns/activitystreams')[source]

Converts an ActivityStreams 1 activity or object to ActivityStreams 2.

Parameters
  • obj – dict, AS1 activity or object

  • type – string, default type if type inference can’t determine a type.

  • context – string, included as @context

Returns: dict, AS2 activity or object

granary.as2.to_as1(obj, use_type=True)[source]

Converts an ActivityStreams 2 activity or object to ActivityStreams 1.

Parameters
  • obj – dict, AS2 activity or object

  • use_type – boolean, whether to include objectType and verb

Returns: dict, AS1 activity or object

atom

Convert between ActivityStreams 1 and Atom.

Atom spec: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4287 (RIP atomenabled.org)

class granary.atom.Defaulter(init={})[source]

Bases: defaultdict

Emulates Django template behavior that returns a special default value that can continue to be referenced when an attribute or item lookup fails. Helps avoid conditionals in the template itself. https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/1.8/ref/templates/language/#variables

__init__(init={})[source]
__str__()

Return str(self).

__eq__(value, /)

Return self==value.

__hash__()[source]

Return hash(self).

__weakref__

list of weak references to the object (if defined)

granary.atom.activities_to_atom(activities, actor, title=None, request_url=None, host_url=None, xml_base=None, rels=None, reader=True)[source]

Converts ActivityStreams 1 activities to an Atom feed.

Parameters
  • activities – list of ActivityStreams activity dicts

  • actor – ActivityStreams actor dict, the author of the feed

  • title – string, the feed <title> element. Defaults to ‘User feed for [NAME]’

  • request_url – the URL of this Atom feed, if any. Used in a link rel=”self”.

  • host_url – the home URL for this Atom feed, if any. Used in the top-level feed <id> element.

  • xml_base – the base URL, if any. Used in the top-level xml:base attribute.

  • rels – rel links to include. dict mapping string rel value to string URL.

  • reader – boolean, whether the output will be rendered in a feed reader. Currently just includes location if True, not otherwise.

Returns

unicode string with Atom XML

granary.atom.activity_to_atom(activity, xml_base=None, reader=True)[source]

Converts a single ActivityStreams 1 activity to an Atom entry.

Kwargs are passed through to activities_to_atom().

Parameters
  • xml_base – the base URL, if any. Used in the top-level xml:base attribute.

  • reader – boolean, whether the output will be rendered in a feed reader. Currently just includes location if True, not otherwise.

Returns

unicode string with Atom XML

granary.atom.atom_to_activities(atom)[source]

Converts an Atom feed to ActivityStreams 1 activities.

Parameters

atom – unicode string, Atom document with top-level <feed> element

Returns

list of ActivityStreams activity dicts

granary.atom.atom_to_activity(atom)[source]

Converts an Atom entry to an ActivityStreams 1 activity.

Parameters

atom – unicode string, Atom document with top-level <entry> element

Returns

dict, ActivityStreams activity

granary.atom.html_to_atom(html, url=None, fetch_author=False, reader=True)[source]

Converts microformats2 HTML to an Atom feed.

Parameters
  • html – unicode string

  • url – string URL html came from, optional

  • fetch_author – boolean, whether to make HTTP request to fetch rel-author link

  • reader – boolean, whether the output will be rendered in a feed reader. Currently just includes location if True, not otherwise.

Returns

unicode string with Atom XML

facebook

Facebook source class. Supports both Graph API and scraping HTML.

https://developers.facebook.com/docs/graph-api/using-graph-api/

class granary.facebook.FacebookId(user, post, comment)

Bases: tuple

property comment

Alias for field number 2

property post

Alias for field number 1

property user

Alias for field number 0

granary.facebook.now_fn(tz=None)

Returns new datetime object representing current time local to tz.

tz

Timezone object.

If no tz is specified, uses local timezone.

class granary.facebook.Facebook(access_token=None, user_id=None, scrape=False, cookie_c_user=None, cookie_xs=None)[source]

Bases: Source

Facebook source class. See file docstring and Source class for details.

access_token

string, optional, OAuth access token

user_id

string, optional, current user’s id (either global or app-scoped)

scrape

boolean, whether to scrape mbasic.facebook.com’s HTML (True) or use the API (False)

cookie_c_user

string, optional c_user cookie to use when scraping

cookie_xs

string, optional xs cookie to use when scraping

__init__(access_token=None, user_id=None, scrape=False, cookie_c_user=None, cookie_xs=None)[source]

Constructor.

If an OAuth access token is provided, it will be passed on to Facebook. This will be necessary for some people and contact details, based on their privacy settings.

If scrape is True, cookie_c_user and cookie_xs must be provided.

Parameters
  • access_token – string, optional OAuth access token

  • user_id – string, optional, current user’s id (either global or app-scoped)

  • scrape – boolean, whether to scrape mbasic.facebook.com’s HTML (True) or use the API (False)

  • cookie_c_user – string, optional c_user cookie to use when scraping

  • cookie_xs – string, optional xs cookie to use when scraping

user_url(id)

Returns the URL for a user’s profile.

get_actor(user_id=None)[source]

Returns a user as a JSON ActivityStreams actor dict.

Parameters

user_id – string id or username. Defaults to ‘me’, ie the current user.

get_activities_response(user_id=None, group_id=None, app_id=None, activity_id=None, start_index=0, count=0, etag=None, min_id=None, cache=None, fetch_replies=False, fetch_likes=False, fetch_shares=False, fetch_events=False, fetch_mentions=False, search_query=None, fetch_news=False, event_owner_id=None, **kwargs)[source]

Fetches posts and converts them to ActivityStreams activities.

See method docstring in source.py for details.

Likes, top-level replies (ie comments), and reactions are always included. They come from the ‘comments’, ‘likes’, and ‘reactions’ fields in the Graph API’s Post object: https://developers.facebook.com/docs/reference/api/post/

Threaded comments, ie comments in reply to other top-level comments, require an additional API call, so they’re only included if fetch_replies is True.

Mentions are never fetched or included because the API doesn’t support searching for them. https://github.com/snarfed/bridgy/issues/523#issuecomment-155523875

Additional args:
fetch_news: boolean, whether to also fetch and include Open Graph news

stories (/USER/news.publishes). Requires the user_actions.news permission. Background in https://github.com/snarfed/bridgy/issues/479

event_owner_id: string. if provided, only events owned by this user id

will be returned. avoids (but doesn’t entirely prevent) processing big non-indieweb events with tons of attendees that put us over app engine’s instance memory limit. https://github.com/snarfed/bridgy/issues/77

get_event(event_id, owner_id=None)[source]

Returns a Facebook event post.

Parameters
  • id – string, site-specific event id

  • owner_id – string

Returns

dict, decoded ActivityStreams activity, or None if the event is not found or is owned by a different user than owner_id (if provided)

get_comment(comment_id, activity_id=None, activity_author_id=None, activity=None)[source]

Returns an ActivityStreams comment object.

Parameters
  • comment_id – string comment id

  • activity_id – string activity id, optional

  • activity_author_id – string activity author id, optional

  • activity – activity object (optional)

get_share(activity_user_id, activity_id, share_id, activity=None)[source]

Returns an ActivityStreams share activity object.

Parameters
  • activity_user_id – string id of the user who posted the original activity

  • activity_id – string activity id

  • share_id – string id of the share object

  • activity – activity object (optional)

get_albums(user_id=None)[source]

Fetches and returns a user’s photo albums.

Parameters

user_id – string id or username. Defaults to ‘me’, ie the current user.

Returns

sequence of ActivityStream album object dicts

get_reaction(activity_user_id, activity_id, reaction_user_id, reaction_id, activity=None)[source]

Fetches and returns a reaction.

Parameters
  • activity_user_id – string id of the user who posted the original activity

  • activity_id – string activity id

  • reaction_user_id – string id of the user who reacted

  • reaction_id – string id of the reaction. one of: ‘love’, ‘wow’, ‘haha’, ‘sad’, ‘angry’, ‘thankful’, ‘pride’, ‘care

  • activity – activity object (optional)

create(obj, include_link='omit', ignore_formatting=False)[source]

Creates a new post, comment, like, or RSVP.

Parameters
  • obj – ActivityStreams object

  • include_link – string

  • ignore_formatting – boolean

Returns

a CreationResult whose contents will be a dict with ‘id’ and ‘url’ keys for the newly created Facebook object (or None)

preview_create(obj, include_link='omit', ignore_formatting=False)[source]

Previews creating a new post, comment, like, or RSVP.

Parameters
  • obj – ActivityStreams object

  • include_link – string

  • ignore_formatting – boolean

Returns

a CreationResult whose contents will be a unicode string HTML snippet or None

create_notification(user_id, text, link)[source]

Sends the authenticated user a notification.

Uses the Notifications API (beta): https://developers.facebook.com/docs/games/notifications/#impl

Parameters
  • user_id – string, username or user ID

  • text – string, shown to the user in the notification

  • link – relative string URL, the user is redirected here when they click on the notification. Note that only the path and query parameters are used! they’re combined with the domain in your Facebook app’s Game App URL: https://developers.facebook.com/docs/games/services/appnotifications#parameters

Raises: urllib2.HTPPError

post_url(post)[source]

Returns a short Facebook URL for a post.

Parameters

post – Facebook JSON post

comment_url(post_id, comment_id, post_author_id=None)[source]

Returns a short Facebook URL for a comment.

Parameters
  • post_id – Facebook post id

  • comment_id – Facebook comment id

classmethod base_id(url)[source]

Guesses the id of the object in the given URL.

Returns

string, or None

base_object(obj, verb=None, resolve_numeric_id=False)[source]

Returns the ‘base’ silo object that an object operates on.

This is mostly a big bag of heuristics for reverse engineering and parsing Facebook URLs. Whee.

Parameters
  • obj – ActivityStreams object

  • verb – string, optional

  • resolve_numeric_id – if True, tries harder to populate the numeric_id field by making an additional API call to look up the object if necessary.

Returns

dict, minimal ActivityStreams object. Usually has at least id, numeric_id, and url fields; may also have author.

post_to_activity(post)[source]

Converts a post to an activity.

Parameters

post – dict, a decoded JSON post

Returns

an ActivityStreams activity dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

post_to_object(post, type=None)[source]

Converts a post to an object.

TODO: handle the sharedposts field

Parameters
  • post – dict, a decoded JSON post

  • type – string object type: None, ‘post’, or ‘comment’

Returns

an ActivityStreams object dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

comment_to_object(comment, post_id=None, post_author_id=None)[source]

Converts a comment to an object.

Parameters
  • comment – dict, a decoded JSON comment

  • post_id – optional string Facebook post id. Only used if the comment id doesn’t have an embedded post id.

  • post_author_id – optional string Facebook post author id. Only used if the comment id doesn’t have an embedded post author id.

Returns

an ActivityStreams object dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

share_to_object(share)[source]

Converts a share (from /OBJECT/sharedposts) to an object.

Parameters

share – dict, a decoded JSON share

Returns

an ActivityStreams object dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

user_to_actor(user)[source]

Converts a user or page to an actor.

Parameters

user – dict, a decoded JSON Facebook user or page

Returns

an ActivityStreams actor dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

event_to_object(event, rsvps=None)[source]

Converts an event to an object.

Parameters
  • event – dict, a decoded JSON Facebook event

  • rsvps – sequence, optional Facebook RSVPs

Returns

an ActivityStreams object dict

event_to_activity(event, rsvps=None)[source]

Converts a event to an activity.

Parameters
  • event – dict, a decoded JSON Facebook event

  • rsvps – list of JSON Facebook RSVPs

Returns

an ActivityStreams activity dict

rsvp_to_object(rsvp, type=None, event=None)[source]

Converts an RSVP to an object.

The ‘id’ field will ony be filled in if event[‘id’] is provided.

Parameters
  • rsvp – dict, a decoded JSON Facebook RSVP

  • type – optional Facebook RSVP type, one of RSVP_FIELDS

  • event – Facebook event object. May contain only a single ‘id’ element.

Returns

an ActivityStreams object dict

album_to_object(album)[source]

Converts a photo album to an object.

Parameters

album – dict, a decoded JSON Facebook album

Returns

an ActivityStreams object dict

privacy_to_to(obj, type=None)[source]

Converts a Facebook privacy field to an ActivityStreams to field.

privacy is sometimes an object: https://developers.facebook.com/docs/graph-api/reference/post#fields

…and other times a string: https://developers.facebook.com/docs/graph-api/reference/album/#readfields

Parameters

obj – dict, Facebook object (post, album, comment, etc)

Returns

ActivityStreams to object, or None if unknown type: string object type: None, ‘post’, or ‘comment’

Return type

dict

fql_stream_to_post(stream, actor=None)[source]

Converts an FQL stream row to a Graph API post.

Currently unused and untested! Use at your own risk.

https://developers.facebook.com/docs/technical-guides/fql/ https://developers.facebook.com/docs/reference/fql/stream/

TODO: place, to, with_tags, message_tags, likes, comments, etc., most require extra queries to inflate.

Parameters
  • stream – dict, a row from the FQL stream table

  • actor – dict, a row from the FQL profile table

Returns

dict, Graph API post

Here’s example code to query FQL and pass the results to this method:

resp = self.urlopen('https://graph.facebook.com/v2.0/fql?' + urllib.urlencode(
    {'q': json_dumps({
      'stream': '''\
        SELECT actor_id, post_id, created_time, updated_time,
          attachment, privacy, message, description
        FROM stream
        WHERE filter_key IN (
          SELECT filter_key FROM stream_filter WHERE uid = me())
        ORDER BY created_time DESC
        LIMIT 50
        ''',
      'actors': '''\
        SELECT id, name, username, url, pic FROM profile WHERE id IN
          (SELECT actor_id FROM #stream)
        '''})}))

results = {q['name']: q['fql_result_set'] for q in resp['data']}
actors = {a['id']: a for a in results['actors']}
posts = [self.fql_stream_to_post(row, actor=actors[row['actor_id']])
         for row in results['stream']]
email_to_object(html)[source]

Converts a Facebook HTML notification email to an AS1 object.

Returns: dict, AS1 object, or None if email html couldn’t be parsed

Parameters

html – string

scraped_to_activities(scraped, log_html=False, **kwargs)[source]

Converts HTML from an mbasic.facebook.com timeline to AS1 activities.

Parameters
  • scraped – str, HTML

  • log_html – boolean

  • kwargs – unused

Returns: tuple: ([AS activities], AS logged in actor (ie viewer))

scraped_to_activity(scraped, log_html=False, **kwargs)[source]

Converts HTML from an mbasic.facebook.com post page to an AS1 activity.

Parameters
  • scraped – str, HTML from an mbasic.facebook.com post permalink

  • log_html – boolean

  • kwargs – unused

Returns: tuple: (dict AS activity or None, AS logged in actor (ie viewer))

merge_scraped_reactions(scraped, activity)[source]

Converts and merges scraped likes and reactions into an activity.

New likes and emoji reactions are added to the activity in ‘tags’. Existing likes and emoji reactions in ‘tags’ are ignored.

Parameters
  • scraped – str, HTML from an mbasic.facebook.com/ufi/reaction/profile/browser/ page

  • activity – dict, AS activity to merge these reactions into

Returns

list of dict AS like/react tag objects converted from scraped

scraped_to_actor(scraped)[source]

Converts HTML from an mbasic.facebook.com profile about page to an AS1 actor.

Parameters

scraped – str, HTML from an mbasic.facebook.com post permalink

Returns: dict, AS1 actor

static parse_id(id, is_comment=False)[source]

Parses a Facebook post or comment id.

Facebook ids come in different formats:

  • Simple number, usually a user or post: 12

  • Two numbers with underscore, usually POST_COMMENT or USER_POST: 12_34

  • Three numbers with underscores, USER_POST_COMMENT: 12_34_56

  • Three numbers with colons, USER:POST:SHARD: 12:34:63 (We’re guessing that the third part is a shard in some FB internal system. In our experience so far, it’s always either 63 or the app-scoped user id for 63.)

  • Two numbers with colon, POST:SHARD: 12:34 (We’ve seen 0 as shard in this format.)

  • Four numbers with colons/underscore, USER:POST:SHARD_COMMENT: 12:34:63_56

  • Five numbers with colons/underscore, USER:EVENT:UNKNOWN:UNKNOWN_UNKNOWN Not currently supported! Examples: 111599105530674:998145346924699:10102446236688861:10207188792305341_998153510257216 111599105530674:195181727490727:10102446236688861:10205257726909910_195198790822354

Background:

Parameters
  • id – string or integer

  • is_comment – boolean

Returns

Some or all fields may be None.

Return type

FacebookId

resolve_object_id(user_id, post_id, activity=None)[source]

Resolve a post id to its Facebook object id, if any.

Used for photo posts, since Facebook has (at least) two different objects (and ids) for them, one for the post and one for each photo.

This is the same logic that we do for canonicalizing photo objects in get_activities() above.

If activity is not provided, fetches the post from Facebook.

Parameters
  • user_id – string Facebook user id who posted the post

  • post_id – string Facebook post id

  • activity – optional AS activity representation of Facebook post

Returns

Facebook object id or None

Return type

string

urlopen(url, _as=<class 'dict'>, **kwargs)[source]

Wraps urllib2.urlopen() and passes through the access token.

Parameters

_as – if not None, parses the response as JSON and passes it through _as() with this type. if None, returns the response object.

Returns

decoded JSON object or urlopen response object

urlopen_batch(urls)[source]

Sends a batch of multiple API calls using Facebook’s batch API.

Raises the appropriate urllib2.HTTPError if any individual call returns HTTP status code 4xx or 5xx.

https://developers.facebook.com/docs/graph-api/making-multiple-requests

Parameters

urls – sequence of string relative API URLs, e.g. (‘me’, ‘me/accounts’)

Returns

sequence of responses, either decoded JSON objects (when possible) or raw string bodies

urlopen_batch_full(requests)[source]

Sends a batch of multiple API calls using Facebook’s batch API.

Similar to urlopen_batch(), but the requests arg and return value are dicts with headers, HTTP status code, etc. Only raises urllib2.HTTPError if the outer batch request itself returns an HTTP error.

https://developers.facebook.com/docs/graph-api/making-multiple-requests

Parameters

requests

sequence of dict requests in Facebook’s batch format, except that headers is a single dict, not a list of dicts, e.g.:

[{'relative_url': 'me/feed',
  'headers': {'ETag': 'xyz', ...},
 },
 ...
]

Returns

sequence of dict responses in Facebook’s batch format, except that body is JSON-decoded if possible, and headers is a single dict, not a list of dicts, e.g.:

[{'code': 200,
  'headers': {'ETag': 'xyz', ...},
  'body': {...},
 },
 ...
]

flickr

Flickr source class.

Uses Flickr’s REST API https://www.flickr.com/services/api/

TODO: Fetching feeds with comments and/or favorites is very request intensive right now. It would be ideal to find a way to batch requests, make requests asynchronously, or make better calls to the API itself. Maybe use flickr.activity.userPhotos (https://www.flickr.com/services/api/flickr.activity.userPhotos.html) when group_id=SELF.

class granary.flickr.Flickr(access_token_key, access_token_secret, user_id=None, path_alias=None)[source]

Bases: Source

Flickr source class. See file docstring and Source class for details.

__init__(access_token_key, access_token_secret, user_id=None, path_alias=None)[source]

Constructor.

If they are not provided, user_id and path_alias will be looked up via the API on first use.

Parameters
  • access_token_key – string, OAuth access token key

  • access_token_secret – string, OAuth access token secret

  • user_id – string, the logged in user’s Flickr nsid. (optional)

  • path_alias – string, the logged in user’s path_alias, replaces user_id in canonical profile and photo urls (optional)

call_api_method(method, params=None)[source]

Call a Flickr API method.

upload(params, file)[source]

Upload a photo or video via the Flickr API.

create(obj, include_link='omit', ignore_formatting=False)[source]

Creates a photo, comment, or favorite.

Parameters
  • obj – ActivityStreams object

  • include_link – string

  • ignore_formatting – boolean

Returns

a CreationResult whose content will be a dict with ‘id’, ‘url’, and ‘type’ keys (all optional) for the newly created Flickr object (or None)

preview_create(obj, include_link='omit', ignore_formatting=False)[source]

Preview creation of a photo, comment, or favorite.

Parameters
  • obj – ActivityStreams object

  • include_link – string

  • ignore_formatting – boolean

Returns

a CreationResult whose description will be an HTML summary of what publishing will do, and whose content will be an HTML preview of the result (or None)

delete(id)[source]

Deletes a photo. The authenticated user must have created it.

Parameters

id – int or string, photo id to delete

Returns: CreationResult, content is Flickr API response dict

preview_delete(id)[source]

Previews deleting a photo.

Parameters

id – int or string, photo id to delete

Returns: CreationResult

get_activities_response(user_id=None, group_id=None, app_id=None, activity_id=None, start_index=0, count=0, etag=None, min_id=None, cache=None, fetch_replies=False, fetch_likes=False, fetch_shares=False, fetch_events=False, fetch_mentions=False, search_query=None, **kwargs)[source]

Fetches Flickr photos and converts them to ActivityStreams activities.

See method docstring in source.py for details.

Mentions are not fetched or included because they don’t exist in Flickr. https://github.com/snarfed/bridgy/issues/523#issuecomment-155523875

get_actor(user_id=None)[source]

Get an ActivityStreams object of type ‘person’ given a Flickr user’s nsid. If no user_id is provided, this method will make another API request to find out the currently logged in user’s id.

Parameters

user_id – string, optional

Returns

dict, an ActivityStreams object

user_to_actor(resp)[source]

Convert a Flickr user dict into an ActivityStreams actor.

get_comment(comment_id, activity_id=None, activity_author_id=None, activity=None)[source]

Returns an ActivityStreams comment object.

Parameters
  • comment_id – string comment id

  • activity_id – string activity id, optional

  • activity_author_id – string activity author id, ignored

  • activity – activity object, optional. Avoids fetching the activity.

photo_to_activity(photo)[source]

Convert a Flickr photo to an ActivityStreams object. Takes either data in the expanded form returned by flickr.photos.getInfo or the abbreviated form returned by flickr.people.getPhotos.

Parameters

photo – dict response from Flickr

Returns

dict, an ActivityStreams object

like_to_object(person, photo_activity)[source]

Convert a Flickr favorite into an ActivityStreams like tag.

Parameters
  • person – dict, the person object from Flickr

  • photo_activity – dict, the ActivityStreams object representing the photo this like belongs to

Returns

dict, an ActivityStreams object

comment_to_object(comment, photo_id)[source]

Convert a Flickr comment json object to an ActivityStreams comment.

Parameters
  • comment – dict, the comment object from Flickr

  • photo_id – string, the Flickr ID of the photo that this comment belongs to

Returns

dict, an ActivityStreams object

get_user_image(farm, server, author)[source]

Convert fields from a typical Flickr response into the buddy icon URL.

ref: https://www.flickr.com/services/api/misc.buddyicons.html

user_id()[source]

Get the nsid of the currently authorized user. The first time this is called, it will invoke the flickr.people.getLimits api method.

https://www.flickr.com/services/api/flickr.people.getLimits.html

Returns

a string

path_alias()[source]

Get the path_alias of the currently authorized user. The first time this is called, it will invoke the flickr.people.getInfo api method.

https://www.flickr.com/services/api/flickr.people.getInfo.html

Returns

a string

user_url(user_id)[source]

Convert a user’s path_alias to their Flickr profile page URL.

Parameters

user_id (string) – user’s alphanumeric nsid or path alias

Returns

string, a profile URL

photo_url(user_id, photo_id)[source]

Construct a url for a photo given user id and the photo id :param user_id: alphanumeric user ID or path alias :type user_id: string :param photo_id: numeric photo ID :type photo_id: string

Returns

string, the photo URL

classmethod base_id(url)[source]

Used when publishing comments or favorites. Flickr photo ID is the 3rd path component rather than the first.

github

GitHub source class. Uses the v4 GraphQL API and the v3 REST API.

API docs: https://developer.github.com/v4/ https://developer.github.com/v3/ https://developer.github.com/apps/building-oauth-apps/authorization-options-for-oauth-apps/#web-application-flow

class granary.github.GitHub(access_token=None)[source]

Bases: Source

GitHub source class. See file docstring and Source class for details.

access_token

string, optional, OAuth access token

__init__(access_token=None)[source]

Constructor.

Parameters

access_token – string, optional OAuth access token

user_url(username)[source]

Returns the URL for a user’s profile.

classmethod base_id(url)[source]

Extracts and returns a USERNAME:REPO:ID id for an issue or PR.

Parameters

url – string

Returns

string, or None

graphql(graphql, kwargs)[source]

Makes a v4 GraphQL API call.

Parameters

graphql – string GraphQL operation

Returns: dict, parsed JSON response

rest(url, data=None, parse_json=True, **kwargs)[source]

Makes a v3 REST API call.

Uses HTTP POST if data is provided, otherwise GET.

Parameters
  • data – dict, JSON payload for POST requests

  • json – boolean, whether to parse the response body as JSON and return it as a dict. If False, returns a requests.Response instead.

Returns: dict decoded from JSON response if json=True, otherwise requests.Response

get_activities_response(user_id=None, group_id=None, app_id=None, activity_id=None, start_index=0, count=0, etag=None, min_id=None, cache=None, fetch_replies=False, fetch_likes=False, fetch_shares=False, fetch_events=False, fetch_mentions=False, search_query=None, public_only=True, **kwargs)[source]

Fetches issues and comments and converts them to ActivityStreams activities.

See Source.get_activities_response() for details.

Not comprehensive! Uses the notifications API (v3 REST).

Also note that start_index and count are not currently supported.

https://developer.github.com/v3/activity/notifications/ https://developer.github.com/v3/issues/ https://developer.github.com/v3/issues/comments/

fetch_likes determines whether emoji reactions are fetched: https://help.github.com/articles/about-conversations-on-github#reacting-to-ideas-in-comments

The notifications API call supports Last-Modified/If-Modified-Since headers and 304 Not Changed responses. If provided, etag should be an RFC2822 timestamp, usually the exact value returned in a Last-Modified header. It will also be passed to the comments API endpoint as the since= value (converted to ISO 8601).

get_actor(user_id=None)[source]

Fetches nd returns a user.

Args: user_id: string, defaults to current user

Returns: dict, ActivityStreams actor object

get_comment(comment_id, **kwargs)[source]

Fetches and returns a comment.

Parameters

comment_id – string comment id (either REST or GraphQL), of the form REPO-OWNER_REPO-NAME_ID, e.g. snarfed:bridgy:456789

Returns: dict, an ActivityStreams comment object

render_markdown(markdown, owner, repo)[source]

Uses the GitHub API to render GitHub-flavored Markdown to HTML.

https://developer.github.com/v3/markdown/ https://github.github.com/gfm/

Parameters
  • markdown – unicode string, input

  • repo (owner and) – strings, the repo to render in, for context. affects git hashes #XXX for issues/PRs.

Returns: unicode string, rendered HTML

create(obj, include_link='omit', ignore_formatting=False)[source]

Creates a new issue or comment.

Parameters
  • obj – ActivityStreams object

  • include_link – string

  • ignore_formatting – boolean

Returns

a CreationResult whose contents will be a dict with ‘id’ and ‘url’ keys for the newly created GitHub object (or None)

preview_create(obj, include_link='omit', ignore_formatting=False)[source]

Previews creating an issue or comment.

Parameters
  • obj – ActivityStreams object

  • include_link – string

  • ignore_formatting – boolean

Returns

a CreationResult whose contents will be a unicode string HTML snippet or None

existing_labels(owner, repo)[source]

Fetches and returns a repo’s labels.

Parameters
  • owner – string, GitHub username or org that owns the repo

  • repo – string

Returns: set of strings

issue_to_object(issue)[source]

Converts a GitHub issue or pull request to ActivityStreams.

Handles both v4 GraphQL and v3 REST API issue and PR objects.

https://developer.github.com/v4/object/issue/ https://developer.github.com/v4/object/pullrequest/ https://developer.github.com/v3/issues/ https://developer.github.com/v3/pulls/

Parameters

issue – dict, decoded JSON GitHub issue or PR

Returns

an ActivityStreams object dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

pr_to_object(issue)

Converts a GitHub issue or pull request to ActivityStreams.

Handles both v4 GraphQL and v3 REST API issue and PR objects.

https://developer.github.com/v4/object/issue/ https://developer.github.com/v4/object/pullrequest/ https://developer.github.com/v3/issues/ https://developer.github.com/v3/pulls/

Parameters

issue – dict, decoded JSON GitHub issue or PR

Returns

an ActivityStreams object dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

comment_to_object(comment)[source]

Converts a GitHub comment to ActivityStreams.

Handles both v4 GraphQL and v3 REST API issue objects.

https://developer.github.com/v4/object/issue/ https://developer.github.com/v3/issues/

Parameters

comment – dict, decoded JSON GitHub issue

Returns

an ActivityStreams comment dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

reaction_to_object(reaction, target)[source]

Converts a GitHub emoji reaction to ActivityStreams.

Handles v3 REST API reaction objects.

https://developer.github.com/v3/reactions/

Parameters
  • reaction – dict, decoded v3 JSON GitHub reaction

  • target – dict, ActivityStreams object of reaction

Returns

an ActivityStreams reaction dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

user_to_actor(user)[source]

Converts a GitHub user to an ActivityStreams actor.

Handles both v4 GraphQL and v3 REST API user objects.

https://developer.github.com/v4/object/user/ https://developer.github.com/v3/users/

Parameters

user – dict, decoded JSON GitHub user

Returns

an ActivityStreams actor dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

instagram

Instagram source class.

Instagram’s API doesn’t tell you if a user has marked their account private or not, so the Audience Targeting ‘to’ field is currently always set to @public. http://help.instagram.com/448523408565555 https://groups.google.com/forum/m/#!topic/instagram-api-developers/DAO7OriVFsw https://groups.google.com/forum/#!searchin/instagram-api-developers/private

class granary.instagram.Instagram(access_token=None, allow_comment_creation=False, scrape=False, cookie=None)[source]

Bases: Source

Instagram source class. See file docstring and Source class for details.

__init__(access_token=None, allow_comment_creation=False, scrape=False, cookie=None)[source]

Constructor.

If an OAuth access token is provided, it will be passed on to Instagram. This will be necessary for some people and contact details, based on their privacy settings.

Parameters
  • access_token – string, optional OAuth access token

  • allow_comment_creation – boolean, optionally disable comment creation, useful if the app is not approved to create comments.

  • scrape – boolean, whether to scrape instagram.com’s HTML (True) or use the API (False)

  • cookie – string, optional sessionid cookie to use when scraping.

urlopen(url, **kwargs)[source]

Wraps urllib2.urlopen() and passes through the access token.

classmethod user_url(username)[source]

Returns the URL for a user’s profile.

get_actor(user_id=None, **kwargs)[source]

Returns a user as a JSON ActivityStreams actor dict.

Parameters
  • user_id – string id or username. Defaults to ‘self’, ie the current user.

  • kwargs – if scraping, passed through to get_activities_response(). Raises AssertionError if provided and not scraping.

get_activities_response(user_id=None, group_id=None, app_id=None, activity_id=None, start_index=0, count=0, etag=None, min_id=None, cache=None, fetch_replies=False, fetch_likes=False, fetch_shares=False, fetch_events=False, fetch_mentions=False, search_query=None, scrape=False, cookie=None, ignore_rate_limit=False, **kwargs)[source]

Fetches posts and converts them to ActivityStreams activities.

See method docstring in source.py for details. app_id is ignored. Supports min_id, but not ETag, since Instagram doesn’t support it.

http://instagram.com/developer/endpoints/users/#get_users_feed http://instagram.com/developer/endpoints/users/#get_users_media_recent

Likes are always included, regardless of the fetch_likes kwarg. They come bundled in the ‘likes’ field of the API Media object: http://instagram.com/developer/endpoints/media/#

Mentions are never fetched or included because the API doesn’t support searching for them. https://github.com/snarfed/bridgy/issues/523#issuecomment-155523875

Shares are never fetched or included since there is no share feature.

Instagram only supports search over hashtags, so if search_query is set, it must begin with #.

May populate a custom ‘ig_like_count’ property in media objects. (Currently only when scraping.)

Parameters
  • scrape – if True, scrapes HTML from instagram.com instead of using the API. Populates the user’s actor object in the ‘actor’ response field. Useful for apps that haven’t yet been approved in the new permissions approval process. Currently only supports group_id=SELF. Also supports passing a shortcode as activity_id as well as the internal API id. http://developers.instagram.com/post/133424514006/instagram-platform-update

  • cookie – string, only used if scrape=True

  • ignore_rate_limit – boolean, for scraping, always make an HTTP request, even if we’ve been rate limited recently

  • ** – see Source.get_activities_response()

get_comment(comment_id, activity_id=None, activity_author_id=None, activity=None)[source]

Returns an ActivityStreams comment object.

Parameters
  • comment_id – string comment id

  • activity_id – string activity id, optional

  • activity_author_id – string activity author id. Ignored.

  • activity – activity object, optional. Avoids fetching the activity.

get_share(activity_user_id, activity_id, share_id, activity=None)[source]

Not implemented. Returns None. Resharing isn’t a feature of Instagram.

create(obj, include_link='omit', ignore_formatting=False)[source]

Creates a new comment or like.

Parameters
  • obj – ActivityStreams object

  • include_link – string

  • ignore_formatting – boolean

Returns

a CreationResult. if successful, content will have and ‘id’ and

’url’ keys for the newly created Instagram object

preview_create(obj, include_link='omit', ignore_formatting=False)[source]

Preview a new comment or like.

Parameters
  • obj – ActivityStreams object

  • include_link – string

  • ignore_formatting – boolean

Returns

a CreationResult. if successful, content and description

will describe the new instagram object.

media_to_activity(media)[source]

Converts a media to an activity.

http://instagram.com/developer/endpoints/media/#get_media

Parameters

media – JSON object retrieved from the Instagram API

Returns

an ActivityStreams activity dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

media_to_object(media)[source]

Converts a media to an object.

Parameters

media – JSON object retrieved from the Instagram API

Returns

an ActivityStreams object dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

comment_to_object(comment, media_id, media_url)[source]

Converts a comment to an object.

Parameters
  • comment – JSON object retrieved from the Instagram API

  • media_id – string

  • media_url – string

Returns

an ActivityStreams object dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

like_to_object(liker, media_id, media_url)[source]

Converts a like to an object.

Parameters
  • liker – JSON object from the Instagram API, the user who does the liking

  • media_id – string

  • media_url – string

Returns

an ActivityStreams object dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

user_to_actor(user)[source]

Converts a user to an actor.

Parameters

user – JSON object from the Instagram API

Returns

an ActivityStreams actor dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

base_object(obj)[source]

Extends the default base_object() to avoid using shortcodes as object ids.

static id_to_shortcode(id)[source]

Converts a media id to the shortcode used in its instagram.com URL.

Based on http://carrot.is/coding/instagram-ids , which determined that shortcodes are just URL-safe base64 encoded ids.

scraped_to_activities(input, cookie=None, count=None, fetch_extras=False)[source]

Converts scraped Instagram HTML to ActivityStreams activities.

The input HTML may be from:

Parameters
  • input – unicode string containing either HTML or JSON

  • cookie – string, optional sessionid cookie to be used for subsequent HTTP fetches, if necessary.

  • count – integer, number of activities to return, None for all

  • fetch_extras – whether to make extra HTTP fetches to get likes, etc.

Returns

tuple, ([ActivityStreams activities], ActivityStreams viewer actor)

scraped_json_to_activities(input, cookie=None, count=None, fetch_extras=False)[source]

Converts scraped Instagram JSON to ActivityStreams activities.

The input JSON may be from:

Parameters
  • input – dict or sequence of dicts, Instagram JSON object(s)

  • cookie – string, optional sessionid cookie to be used for subsequent HTTP fetches, if necessary.

  • count – integer, number of activities to return, None for all

  • fetch_extras – whether to make extra HTTP fetches to get likes, etc.

Returns

tuple, ([ActivityStreams activities], ActivityStreams viewer actor)

html_to_activities(input, cookie=None, count=None, fetch_extras=False)

Converts scraped Instagram HTML to ActivityStreams activities.

The input HTML may be from:

Parameters
  • input – unicode string containing either HTML or JSON

  • cookie – string, optional sessionid cookie to be used for subsequent HTTP fetches, if necessary.

  • count – integer, number of activities to return, None for all

  • fetch_extras – whether to make extra HTTP fetches to get likes, etc.

Returns

tuple, ([ActivityStreams activities], ActivityStreams viewer actor)

scraped_to_activity(html, **kwargs)[source]

Converts HTML from photo/video permalink page to an AS1 activity.

Parameters
  • html – string, HTML from a photo/video page on instagram.com

  • kwargs – passed through to scraped_to_activities

Returns

(AS activity or None, AS logged in actor (ie viewer))

Return type

tuple

scraped_to_actor(html, **kwargs)[source]

Extracts and returns the logged in actor from any Instagram HTML.

Parameters

html – unicode string

Returns: dict, AS1 actor

merge_scraped_comments(scraped, activity)[source]

Converts and merges scraped comments (replies) into an activity.

Parameters
  • scraped – str or sequence, scraped JSON comments

  • activity – dict, AS activity to merge these comments into

Returns

list of dict AS comment objects converted from scraped

Raises

ValueError – if scraped is not valid JSON

merge_scraped_reactions(scraped, activity)[source]

Converts and merges scraped likes and reactions into an activity.

New likes and emoji reactions are added to the activity in ‘tags’. Existing likes and emoji reactions in ‘tags’ are ignored.

Supports both legacy and v2 Instagram JSON.

Parameters
  • scraped – str or dict, scraped JSON likes

  • activity – dict, AS activity to merge these reactions into

Returns

list of dict AS like tag objects converted from scraped

Raises

ValueError – if scraped is not valid JSON

jsonfeed

Convert between ActivityStreams and JSON Feed.

JSON Feed spec: https://jsonfeed.org/version/1

granary.jsonfeed.activities_to_jsonfeed(activities, actor=None, title=None, feed_url=None, home_page_url=None)[source]

Converts ActivityStreams activities to a JSON feed.

Parameters
  • activities – sequence of ActivityStreams activity dicts

  • actor – ActivityStreams actor dict, the author of the feed

  • title – string, the feed title

  • home_page_url – string, the home page URL

  • feed_url – the URL of the JSON Feed, if any. Included in the feed_url field.

Returns

dict, JSON Feed data, ready to be JSON-encoded

granary.jsonfeed.jsonfeed_to_activities(jsonfeed)[source]

Converts a JSON feed to ActivityStreams activities and actor.

Parameters

jsonfeed – dict, JSON Feed data

Returns

(activities, actor) tuple, where activities and actor are both ActivityStreams object dicts

Raises

ValueError, if jsonfeed isn't a valid JSON Feed dict

mastodon

Mastodon source class.

Mastodon is an ActivityPub implementation, but it also has a REST + OAuth 2 API independent of AP. API docs: https://docs.joinmastodon.org/api/

May also be used for services with Mastodon-compatible APIs, eg Pleroma: https://docs-develop.pleroma.social/backend/API/differences_in_mastoapi_responses/

class granary.mastodon.Mastodon(instance, access_token, user_id=None, truncate_text_length=None)[source]

Bases: Source

Mastodon source class. See file docstring and Source class for details.

instance

string, base URL of Mastodon instance, eg https://mastodon.social/

user_id

integer, optional, current user’s id (not username!) on this instance

access_token

string, optional, OAuth access token

__init__(instance, access_token, user_id=None, truncate_text_length=None)[source]

Constructor.

If user_id is not provided, it will be fetched via the API.

Parameters
  • instance – string, base URL of Mastodon instance, eg https://mastodon.social/

  • user_id – string or integer, optional, current user’s id (not username!) on this instance

  • access_token – string, optional OAuth access token

  • truncate_text_length – int, optional character limit for toots, overrides the default of 500

user_url(username)[source]

Returns the URL for a user’s profile.

classmethod embed_post(obj)[source]

Returns the HTML string for embedding a toot.

https://docs.joinmastodon.org/methods/oembed/

Parameters

obj – AS1 dict with at least url, and optionally also content.

Returns: string, HTML

get_activities_response(user_id=None, group_id=None, app_id=None, activity_id=None, fetch_replies=False, fetch_likes=False, fetch_shares=False, include_shares=True, fetch_events=False, fetch_mentions=False, search_query=None, start_index=0, count=0, cache=None, **kwargs)[source]

Fetches toots and converts them to ActivityStreams activities.

See Source.get_activities_response() for details.

get_actor(user_id=None)[source]

Fetches and returns an account.

Args: user_id: string, defaults to current account

Returns: dict, ActivityStreams actor object

get_comment(comment_id, **kwargs)[source]

Fetches and returns a comment.

Parameters
  • comment_id – string status id

  • **kwargs – unused

Returns: dict, ActivityStreams object

Raises

ValueError – if comment_id is invalid

status_to_activity(status)[source]

Converts a status to an activity.

Parameters

status – dict, a decoded JSON status

Returns

an ActivityStreams activity dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

status_to_object(status)[source]

Converts a status to an object.

Parameters

status – dict, a decoded JSON status

Returns

an ActivityStreams object dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

user_to_actor(account)[source]

Converts a Mastodon account to an AS1 actor.

Parameters

account – dict, Mastodon account

Returns: dict, AS1 actor

create(obj, include_link='omit', ignore_formatting=False)[source]

Creates a status (aka toot), reply, boost (aka reblog), or favorite.

https://docs.joinmastodon.org/methods/statuses/

Parameters
  • obj – ActivityStreams object

  • include_link – string

  • ignore_formatting – boolean

Returns: CreationResult whose content will be a dict with ‘id’, ‘url’, and

‘type’ keys (all optional) for the newly created object (or None)

preview_create(obj, include_link='omit', ignore_formatting=False)[source]

Preview creating a status (aka toot), reply, boost (aka reblog), or favorite.

https://docs.joinmastodon.org/methods/statuses/

Parameters
  • obj – ActivityStreams object

  • include_link – string

  • ignore_formatting – boolean

Returns: CreationResult whose content will be a unicode string HTML

snippet (or None)

base_object(obj)[source]

Returns the ‘base’ Mastodon object that an object operates on.

If the object is a reply, boost, or favorite of a Mastodon post - on any instance - this returns that post object. The id in the returned object is the id of that remote post on the local instance. (As a Mastodon style id, ie an integer in a string, not a tag URI.)

Uses Mastodon’s search API on the local instance to determine whether a URL is a Mastodon post, and if it is, to find or generate an id for it on the local instance.

Discovered via https://mastodon.social/@jkreeftmeijer/101245063526942536

Parameters

obj – ActivityStreams object

Returns

dict, minimal ActivityStreams object. Usually has at least id; may also have url, author, etc.

status_url(id)[source]

Returns the local instance URL for a status with a given id.

upload_media(media)[source]

Uploads one or more images or videos from web URLs.

https://docs.joinmastodon.org/methods/statuses/media/ https://docs.joinmastodon.org/user/posting/#attachments

Parameters

media – sequence of AS image or stream objects, eg: [{‘url’: ‘http://picture’, ‘displayName’: ‘a thing’}, …]

Returns: list of string media ids for uploaded files

delete(id)[source]

Deletes a toot. The authenticated user must have authored it.

Parameters

id – int or string, toot id (on local instance) to delete

Returns: CreationResult, content is dict with url and id fields

preview_delete(id)[source]

Previews deleting a toot.

Parameters

id – int or string, toot id (on local instance) to delete

Returns: CreationResult

get_blocklist_ids()[source]

Returns the current user’s block list as a list of integer account ids.

May make multiple API calls to fully fetch large block lists. https://docs.joinmastodon.org/methods/accounts/blocks/

Returns

sequence of integer Mastodon account ids on the current instance

meetup

Meetup.com source class.

class granary.meetup.Meetup(access_token)[source]

Bases: Source

classmethod embed_post(obj)[source]

Returns the HTML string for embedding an RSVP from Meetup.com.

Parameters
  • obj

  • obj – AS1 dict with at least url, and optionally also content.

Returns: string, HTML

__init__(access_token)[source]
create(obj, include_link='omit', ignore_formatting=False)[source]

Creates a new object: a post, comment, like, share, or RSVP.

Subclasses should override this. Different sites will support different functionality; check each subclass for details. The actor will usually be the authenticated user.

Parameters
  • obj – ActivityStreams object. At minimum, must have the content field. objectType is strongly recommended.

  • include_link – string. ‘include’, ‘omit’, or ‘if truncated’; whether to include a link to the object (if it has one) in the content.

  • ignore_formatting – whether to use content text as is, instead of converting its HTML to plain text styling (newlines, etc.)

Returns

contents will be a dict. The dict may be None or empty. If

the newly created object has an id or permalink, they’ll be provided in the values for ‘id’ and ‘url’.

Return type

CreationResult

preview_create(obj, include_link='omit', ignore_formatting=False)[source]

Previews creating a new object: a post, comment, like, share, or RSVP.

Returns HTML that previews what create() with the same object will do.

Subclasses should override this. Different sites will support different functionality; check each subclass for details. The actor will usually be the authenticated user.

Parameters
  • obj – ActivityStreams object. At minimum, must have the content field. objectType is strongly recommended.

  • include_link – string. Whether to include a link to the object (if it has one) in the content.

  • ignore_formatting – whether to use content text as is, instead of converting its HTML to plain text styling (newlines, etc.)

Returns

contents will be a unicode string HTML snippet (or None)

Return type

CreationResult

user_to_actor(user)[source]

Converts a user to an actor.

Args: user: dict, a decoded JSON Meetup user

Returns: an ActivityStreams actor dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

user_url(user_id)[source]

Returns the URL for a user’s profile.

microformats2

Convert ActivityStreams to microformats2 HTML and JSON.

Microformats2 specs: http://microformats.org/wiki/microformats2 ActivityStreams 1 specs: http://activitystrea.ms/specs/

granary.microformats2.get_string_urls(objs)[source]

Extracts string URLs from a list of either string URLs or mf2 dicts.

Many mf2 properties can contain either string URLs or full mf2 objects, e.g. h-cites. in-reply-to is the most commonly used example: http://indiewebcamp.com/in-reply-to#How_to_consume_in-reply-to

Parameters

objs – sequence of either string URLs or embedded mf2 objects

Returns

list of string URLs

granary.microformats2.get_html(val)[source]

Returns a string value that may have HTML markup.

Parameters

value – mf2 property value, either string or {‘html’: ‘<p>str</p>’, ‘value’: ‘str’} dict

Returns

string or None

granary.microformats2.get_text(val)[source]

Returns a plain text string value. See get_html.

granary.microformats2.activity_to_json(activity, **kwargs)[source]

Converts an ActivityStreams activity to microformats2 JSON.

Parameters
  • activity – dict, a decoded JSON ActivityStreams activity

  • kwargs – passed to object_to_json

Returns

dict, decoded microformats2 JSON

granary.microformats2.object_to_json(obj, trim_nulls=True, entry_class='h-entry', default_object_type=None, synthesize_content=True)[source]

Converts an ActivityStreams object to microformats2 JSON.

Parameters
  • obj – dict, a decoded JSON ActivityStreams object

  • trim_nulls – boolean, whether to remove elements with null or empty values

  • entry_class – string or sequence, the mf2 class(es) that entries should be given (e.g. ‘h-cite’ when parsing a reference to a foreign entry). defaults to ‘h-entry’

  • default_object_type – string, the ActivityStreams objectType to use if one is not present. defaults to None

  • synthesize_content – whether to generate synthetic content if the object doesn’t have its own, e.g. ‘likes this.’ or ‘shared this.’

Returns

dict, decoded microformats2 JSON

granary.microformats2.json_to_object(mf2, actor=None, fetch_mf2=False)[source]

Converts a single microformats2 JSON item to an ActivityStreams object.

Supports h-entry, h-event, h-card, and other single item times. Does not yet support h-feed.

Parameters
  • mf2 – dict, decoded JSON microformats2 object

  • actor – optional author AS actor object. usually comes from a rel=”author” link. if mf2 has its own author, that will override this.

  • fetch_mf2 – boolean, whether to fetch additional pages via HTTP if necessary, e.g. to determine authorship: https://indieweb.org/authorship

Returns

dict, ActivityStreams object

granary.microformats2.html_to_activities(html, url=None, actor=None, id=None)[source]

Converts a microformats2 HTML h-feed to ActivityStreams activities.

Parameters
  • html – unicode string HTML or requests.Response

  • url – optional string URL that HTML came from

  • actor – optional author AS actor object for all activities. usually comes from a rel=”author” link.

  • id – string, optional id of specific element to extract and parse. defaults to the whole page.

Returns

list of ActivityStreams activity dicts

granary.microformats2.activities_to_html(activities)[source]

Converts ActivityStreams activities to a microformats2 HTML h-feed.

Parameters

obj – dict, a decoded JSON ActivityStreams object

Returns

string, the content field in obj with the tags in the tags field converted to links if they have startIndex and length, otherwise added to the end.

granary.microformats2.object_to_html(obj, parent_props=None, synthesize_content=True)[source]

Converts an ActivityStreams object to microformats2 HTML.

Features:

  • linkifies embedded tags and adds links for other tags

  • linkifies embedded URLs

  • adds links, summaries, and thumbnails for attachments and checkins

  • adds a “via SOURCE” postscript

Parameters
  • obj – dict, a decoded JSON ActivityStreams object

  • parent_props – list of strings, the properties of the parent object where this object is embedded, e.g. [‘u-repost-of’]

  • synthesize_content – whether to generate synthetic content if the object doesn’t have its own, e.g. ‘likes this.’ or ‘shared this.’

Returns

string, the content field in obj with the tags in the tags field converted to links if they have startIndex and length, otherwise added to the end.

granary.microformats2.json_to_html(obj, parent_props=None)[source]

Converts a microformats2 JSON object to microformats2 HTML.

See object_to_html for details.

Parameters
  • obj – dict, a decoded microformats2 JSON object

  • parent_props – list of strings, the properties of the parent object where this object is embedded, e.g. ‘u-repost-of’

Returns

string HTML

granary.microformats2.hcard_to_html(hcard, parent_props=None)[source]

Renders an h-card as HTML.

Parameters
  • hcard – dict, decoded JSON h-card

  • parent_props – list of strings, the properties of the parent object where this object is embedded, e.g. [‘p-author’]

Returns

string, rendered HTML

granary.microformats2.render_content(obj, include_location=True, synthesize_content=True, render_attachments=False, render_image=False, white_space_pre=True)[source]

Renders the content of an ActivityStreams object as HTML.

Includes tags, mentions, and non-note/article attachments. (Note/article attachments are converted to mf2 children in object_to_json and then rendered in json_to_html.)

Note that the returned HTML is included in Atom as well as HTML documents, so it must be HTML4 / XHTML, not HTML5! All tags must be closed, etc.

Parameters
  • obj – decoded JSON ActivityStreams object

  • include_location – boolean, whether to render location, if provided

  • synthesize_content – boolean, whether to generate synthetic content if the object doesn’t have its own, e.g. ‘likes this.’ or ‘shared this.’

  • render_attachments – boolean, whether to render attachments, eg links, images, audio, and video

  • render_image – boolean, whether to render the object’s image(s)

  • white_space_pre – boolean, whether to wrap in CSS white-space: pre. If False, newlines will be converted to <br> tags instead. Background: https://indiewebcamp.com/note#Indieweb_whitespace_thinking

Returns

string, rendered HTML

granary.microformats2.find_author(parsed, **kwargs)[source]

Returns the author of a page as a ActivityStreams actor dict.

Parameters
  • parsed – dict, parsed mf2 object (ie return value from mf2py.parse())

  • kwargs – passed through to mf2util.find_author()

granary.microformats2.get_title(mf2)[source]

Returns an mf2 object’s title, ie its name.

Parameters

mf2 – dict, parsed mf2 object (ie return value from mf2py.parse())

Returns: string title, possibly ellipsized

granary.microformats2.first_props(props)[source]

Converts a multiply-valued dict to singly valued.

Parameters

props – dict of properties, where each value is a sequence

Returns

corresponding dict with just the first value of each sequence, or ‘’ if the sequence is empty

granary.microformats2.tags_to_html(tags, classname, visible=True)[source]

Returns an HTML string with links to the given tag objects.

Parameters
  • tags – decoded JSON ActivityStreams objects.

  • classname – class for span to enclose tags in

  • visible – boolean, whether to visibly include displayName

granary.microformats2.object_urls(obj)[source]

Returns an object’s unique URLs, preserving order.

granary.microformats2.author_display_name(hcard)[source]

Returns a human-readable string display name for an h-card object.

granary.microformats2.maybe_linked_name(props)[source]

Returns the HTML for a p-name with an optional u-url inside.

Parameters

propsmultiply-valued properties dict

Returns

string HTML

granary.microformats2.img(src, alt='')[source]

Returns an <img> string with the given src, class, and alt.

Parameters
  • src – string url or dict with value and (optionally) alt

  • alt – string, alt attribute value, or None

Returns

string

granary.microformats2.vid(src, poster='')[source]

Returns an <video> string with the given src and class

Parameters
  • src – string, url of the video

  • poster – sring, optional. url of the poster or preview image

Returns

string

granary.microformats2.aud(src)[source]

Returns an <audio> string with the given src and class

Parameters

src – string, url of the audio

Returns

string

granary.microformats2.maybe_linked(text, url, linked_classname=None, unlinked_classname=None)[source]

Wraps text in an <a href=…> iff a non-empty url is provided.

Parameters
  • text – string

  • url – string or None

  • linked_classname – string, optional class attribute to use if url

  • unlinked_classname – string, optional class attribute to use if not url

Returns

string

granary.microformats2.maybe_datetime(str, classname)[source]

Returns a <time datetime=…> elem if str is non-empty.

Parameters
  • str – string RFC339 datetime or None

  • classname – string class name

Returns

string

granary.microformats2.size_to_bytes(size)[source]

Converts a string file size to an integer number of bytes.

Parameters

size – string, may be either integer bytes or human-readable approximation, eg 7MB or 1.23 kb

Returns: integer, bytes, or None if size can’t be parsed

granary.microformats2.prefix_image_urls(activity, prefix)[source]

Adds a prefix to all image url fields, eg to inject a caching proxy.

Skips any image url fields that already start with the prefix. URLs are not URL-encode before adding the prefix. (This is currently used with https://cloudimage.io/ , which doesn’t URL-decode.)

Parameters
  • activity – dict, AS1 activity. Modified in place.

  • prefix – string

pixelfed

Pixelfed source class, heavily based on Mastodon.

Pixelfed’s API is a clone of Mastodon’s. https://docs.pixelfed.org/technical-documentation/api-v1.html

class granary.pixelfed.Pixelfed(instance, access_token, user_id=None, truncate_text_length=None)[source]

Bases: Mastodon

Pixelfed source class.

user_url(username)[source]

Returns the URL for a user’s profile.

status_url(username, id)[source]

Returns the local instance URL for a status with a given id.

get_activities_response(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Fetches toots and converts them to ActivityStreams activities.

See Source.get_activities_response() for details.

reddit

Reddit source class.

Not thread safe!

Reddit API docs: https://github.com/reddit-archive/reddit/wiki/API https://www.reddit.com/dev/api https://www.reddit.com/prefs/apps

PRAW API docs: https://praw.readthedocs.io/

class granary.reddit.Reddit(refresh_token)[source]

Bases: Source

Reddit source class. See file docstring and Source class for details.

__init__(refresh_token)[source]
classmethod post_id(url)[source]

Guesses the post id of the given URL.

Parameters

url – string

Returns

string, or None

praw_to_actor(praw_user)[source]

Converts a PRAW Redditor to an actor.

Makes external calls to fetch data from the Reddit API.

https://praw.readthedocs.io/en/latest/code_overview/models/redditor.html

Caches fetched user data for 5m to avoid repeating user profile API requests when fetching multiple comments or posts from the same author. Background: https://github.com/snarfed/bridgy/issues/1021

Ideally this would be part of PRAW, but they seem uninterested: https://github.com/praw-dev/praw/issues/131 https://github.com/praw-dev/praw/issues/1140

Parameters

user – PRAW Redditor object

Returns

an ActivityStreams actor dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

user_to_actor(user)[source]

Converts a dict user to an actor.

Parameters

user – JSON user

Returns

an ActivityStreams actor dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

praw_to_object(thing, type)[source]

Converts a PRAW object to an AS1 object.

Currently only returns public content.

Note that this will make external API calls to lazily load some attributes.

Parameters
  • thing – a PRAW object, Submission or Comment

  • type – string to denote whether to get submission or comment content

Returns

an ActivityStreams object dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

praw_to_activity(thing, type)[source]

Converts a PRAW submission or comment to an activity.

Note that this will make external API calls to lazily load some attributes.

https://praw.readthedocs.io/en/latest/code_overview/models/submission.html https://praw.readthedocs.io/en/latest/code_overview/models/comment.html

Parameters
  • thing – a PRAW object, Submission or Comment

  • type – string to denote whether to get submission or comment content

Returns

an ActivityStreams activity dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

get_activities_response(user_id=None, group_id=None, app_id=None, activity_id=None, start_index=0, count=None, etag=None, min_id=None, cache=None, fetch_replies=False, fetch_likes=False, fetch_shares=False, fetch_events=False, fetch_mentions=False, search_query=None, **kwargs)[source]

Fetches submissions and ActivityStreams activities.

Currently only implements activity_id, search_query and fetch_replies.

get_actor(user_id=None)[source]

Fetches a Reddit user and converts them to an AS1 actor.

Parameters

user_id – str

Returns: dict, AS1 actor, or {} if the user isn’t found

get_comment(comment_id, activity_id=None, activity_author_id=None, activity=None)[source]

Returns an ActivityStreams comment object.

Parameters
  • comment_id – string comment id

  • activity_id – string activity id, Ignored

  • activity_author_id – string activity author id. Ignored.

  • activity – activity object, Ignored

user_url(username)[source]

Returns the Reddit URL for a given user.

rss

Convert between ActivityStreams and RSS 2.0.

RSS 2.0 spec: http://www.rssboard.org/rss-specification

Apple iTunes Podcasts feed requirements: https://help.apple.com/itc/podcasts_connect/#/itc1723472cb

Notably: * Valid RSS 2.0. * Each podcast item requires <guid>. * Images should be JPEG or PNG, 1400x1400 to 3000x3000. * HTTP server that hosts assets and files should support range requests.

granary.rss.from_activities(activities, actor=None, title=None, feed_url=None, home_page_url=None, hfeed=None)[source]

Converts ActivityStreams activities to an RSS 2.0 feed.

Parameters
  • activities – sequence of ActivityStreams activity dicts

  • actor – ActivityStreams actor dict, the author of the feed

  • title – string, the feed title

  • feed_url – string, the URL for this RSS feed

  • home_page_url – string, the home page URL

  • hfeed – dict, parsed mf2 h-feed, if available

Returns

unicode string with RSS 2.0 XML

granary.rss.to_activities(rss)[source]

Converts an RSS feed to ActivityStreams 1 activities.

Parameters

rss – unicode string, RSS document with top-level <rss> element

Returns

list of ActivityStreams activity dicts

source

Source base class.

Based on the OpenSocial ActivityStreams REST API: http://opensocial-resources.googlecode.com/svn/spec/2.0.1/Social-API-Server.xml#ActivityStreams-Service

Uses the ‘to’ field of the Audience Targeting extension to indicate an activity’s privacy settings. It’s set to a group with alias @public or @private, or unset if unknown. http://activitystrea.ms/specs/json/targeting/1.0/#anchor3

class granary.source.CreationResult(content, description, abort, error_plain, error_html)

Bases: tuple

property abort

Alias for field number 2

property content

Alias for field number 0

property description

Alias for field number 1

property error_html

Alias for field number 4

property error_plain

Alias for field number 3

exception granary.source.RateLimited(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: BaseException

Raised when an API rate limits us, and we may have a partial result.

partial

the partial result, if any. Usually a list.

__init__(*args, **kwargs)[source]
__weakref__

list of weak references to the object (if defined)

granary.source.html_to_text(html, baseurl='', **kwargs)[source]

Converts string html to string text with html2text.

Parameters
granary.source.load_json(body, url)[source]

Utility method to parse a JSON string. Raises HTTPError 502 on failure.

granary.source.creation_result(content=None, description=None, abort=False, error_plain=None, error_html=None)[source]

Create a new CreationResult.

create() and preview_create() use this to provide a detailed description of publishing failures. If abort is False, we should continue looking for an entry to publish; if True, we should immediately inform the user. error_plain text is sent in response to failed publish webmentions; error_html will be displayed to the user when publishing interactively.

Parameters
  • content – a string HTML snippet for preview_create() or a dict for create()

  • description – string HTML snippet describing the publish action, e.g. @-reply’ or ‘RSVP yes to this event’. The verb itself is surrounded by a <span class=”verb”> to allow styling. May also include <a> link(s) and embedded silo post(s).

  • abort – a boolean

  • error_plain – a string

  • error_html – a string

Returns

a CreationResult

class granary.source.SourceMeta(name, bases, class_dict)[source]

Bases: type

Source metaclass. Registers all source classes in the sources global.

class granary.source.Source[source]

Bases: object

Abstract base class for a source (e.g. Facebook, Twitter).

Concrete subclasses must override the class constants below and implement get_activities().

Class constants:

  • DOMAIN: string, the source’s domain

  • BASE_URL: optional, the source’s base url

  • NAME: string, the source’s human-readable name

  • FRONT_PAGE_TEMPLATE: string, the front page child template filename

  • AUTH_URL: string, the url for the “Authenticate” front page link

  • EMBED_POST: string, the HTML for embedding a post. Should have a %(url)s placeholder for the post URL and (optionally) a %(content)s placeholder for the post content.

  • POST_ID_RE: regexp, optional, matches valid post ids. Used in post_id().

  • HTML2TEXT_OPTIONS: dict mapping string html2text option names to values https://github.com/Alir3z4/html2text/blob/master/docs/usage.md#available-options

  • TRUNCATE_TEXT_LENGTH: integer, optional. Character limit to truncate to.

    Defaults to Twitter’s limit, 280 characters as of 2019-10-12.

  • TRUNCATE_URL_LENGTH: integer, optional. Number of characters that URLs count

    for. Defaults to Twitter’s, 23 as of 2019-10-12.

  • OPTIMIZED_COMMENTS: boolean, whether get_comment() is optimized and only fetches the requested comment. If False, get_comment() fetches many or all of the post’s comments to find the requested one.

user_url(user_id)[source]

Returns the URL for a user’s profile.

get_actor(user_id=None)[source]

Fetches and returns a user.

Args: user_id: string, defaults to current user

Returns: dict, ActivityStreams actor object

get_activities(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Fetches and returns a list of activities.

See get_activities_response() for args and kwargs.

Returns

list, ActivityStreams activity dicts

get_activities_response(user_id=None, group_id=None, app_id=None, activity_id=None, start_index=0, count=0, etag=None, min_id=None, cache=None, fetch_replies=False, fetch_likes=False, fetch_shares=False, include_shares=True, fetch_events=False, fetch_mentions=False, search_query=None, scrape=False, **kwargs)[source]

Fetches and returns ActivityStreams activities and response details.

Subclasses should override this. See get_activities() for an alternative that just returns the list of activities.

If user_id is provided, only that user’s activity(s) are included. start_index and count determine paging, as described in the spec: http://activitystrea.ms/draft-spec.html#anchor14

app id is just object id: http://opensocial-resources.googlecode.com/svn/spec/2.0/Social-Data.xml#appId

group id is string id of group or @self, @friends, @all, @search: http://opensocial-resources.googlecode.com/svn/spec/2.0/Social-Data.xml#Group-ID

The fetch_* kwargs all default to False because they often require extra API round trips. Some sources return replies, likes, and shares in the same initial call, so they may be included even if you don’t set their kwarg to True.

Parameters
  • user_id – string, defaults to the currently authenticated user

  • group_id – string, one of @self’, @all’, @friends’, @search’. defaults to @friends

  • app_id – string

  • activity_id – string

  • start_index – int >= 0

  • count – int >= 0

  • etag – string, optional ETag to send with the API request. Results will only be returned if the ETag has changed. Should include enclosing double quotes, e.g. ‘“ABC123”’

  • min_id – only return activities with ids greater than this

  • cache – dict, optional, used to cache metadata like comment and like counts per activity across calls. Used to skip expensive API calls that haven’t changed.

  • fetch_replies – boolean, whether to fetch each activity’s replies also

  • fetch_likes – boolean, whether to fetch each activity’s likes also

  • include_shares – boolean, whether to include share activities

  • fetch_shares – boolean, whether to fetch each activity’s shares also

  • fetch_events – boolean, whether to fetch the user’s events also

  • fetch_mentions – boolean, whether to fetch posts that mention the user

  • search_query – string, an optional search query, only for use with @search group_id

  • scrape – boolean, whether to scrape activities from HTML (etc) instead of using an API. Not supported by all sources.

  • kwargs – some sources accept extra kwargs. See their docs for details.

Returns

response values based on OpenSocial ActivityStreams REST API.

http://opensocial-resources.googlecode.com/svn/spec/2.0.1/Social-API-Server.xml#ActivityStreams-Service http://opensocial-resources.googlecode.com/svn/spec/2.0.1/Core-Data.xml

It has these keys: * items: list of activity dicts * startIndex: int or None * itemsPerPage: int * totalResults: int or None (e.g. if it can ‘t be calculated efficiently) * filtered: False * sorted: False * updatedSince: False * etag: string etag returned by the API’s initial call to get activities

Return type

dict

Raises
  • ValueError – if any argument is invalid for this source

  • NotImplementedError – if the source doesn’t support the requested operation, e.g. Facebook doesn’t support search.

classmethod make_activities_base_response(activities, *args, **kwargs)[source]

Generates a base response dict for get_activities_response().

See get_activities() for args and kwargs.

scraped_to_activities(scraped, count=None, fetch_extras=False, cookie=None)[source]

Converts scraped HTML (or JSON, etc) to AS activities.

Used for scraping data from the web instead of using an API. Useful for sources with APIs that are restricted or have difficult approval processes.

Parameters
  • scraped – str, scraped data from a feed of posts

  • count – integer, number of activities to return, None for all

  • fetch_extras – whether to make extra HTTP fetches to get likes, etc.

  • cookie – string, optional cookie to be used for subsequent HTTP fetches, if necessary.

Returns

([AS activities], AS logged in actor (ie viewer))

Return type

tuple

scraped_to_activity(scraped)[source]

Converts scraped HTML (or JSON, etc) to a single AS activity.

Used for scraping data from the web instead of using an API. Useful for sources with APIs that are restricted or have difficult approval processes.

Parameters

scraped – str, scraped data from a single post permalink

Returns

(AS activity or None, AS logged in actor (ie viewer))

Return type

tuple

scraped_to_actor(scraped)[source]

Converts HTML from a profile page to an AS1 actor.

Parameters

html – string, HTML from a profile page

Returns: dict, AS1 actor

merge_scraped_reactions(scraped, activity)[source]

Converts and merges scraped likes and reactions into an activity.

New likes and emoji reactions are added to the activity in ‘tags’. Existing likes and emoji reactions in ‘tags’ are ignored.

Parameters
  • scraped – str, HTML or JSON with likes and/or emoji reactions

  • activity – dict, AS activity to merge these reactions into

Returns

list of dict AS like/react tag objects converted from scraped

create(obj, include_link='omit', ignore_formatting=False)[source]

Creates a new object: a post, comment, like, share, or RSVP.

Subclasses should override this. Different sites will support different functionality; check each subclass for details. The actor will usually be the authenticated user.

Parameters
  • obj – ActivityStreams object. At minimum, must have the content field. objectType is strongly recommended.

  • include_link – string. ‘include’, ‘omit’, or ‘if truncated’; whether to include a link to the object (if it has one) in the content.

  • ignore_formatting – whether to use content text as is, instead of converting its HTML to plain text styling (newlines, etc.)

Returns

contents will be a dict. The dict may be None or empty. If

the newly created object has an id or permalink, they’ll be provided in the values for ‘id’ and ‘url’.

Return type

CreationResult

preview_create(obj, include_link='omit', ignore_formatting=False)[source]

Previews creating a new object: a post, comment, like, share, or RSVP.

Returns HTML that previews what create() with the same object will do.

Subclasses should override this. Different sites will support different functionality; check each subclass for details. The actor will usually be the authenticated user.

Parameters
  • obj – ActivityStreams object. At minimum, must have the content field. objectType is strongly recommended.

  • include_link – string. Whether to include a link to the object (if it has one) in the content.

  • ignore_formatting – whether to use content text as is, instead of converting its HTML to plain text styling (newlines, etc.)

Returns

contents will be a unicode string HTML snippet (or None)

Return type

CreationResult

delete(id)[source]

Deletes a post.

Generally only supports posts that were authored by the authenticating user.

Parameters

id – silo object id

Returns

CreationResult

preview_delete(id)[source]

Previews deleting a post.

Parameters

id – silo object id

Returns

CreationResult

get_event(event_id)[source]

Fetches and returns an event.

Parameters

id – string, site-specific event id

Returns

decoded ActivityStreams activity, or None

Return type

dict

get_comment(comment_id, activity_id=None, activity_author_id=None, activity=None)[source]

Fetches and returns a comment.

Subclasses should override this.

Parameters
  • comment_id – string comment id

  • activity_id – string activity id, optional

  • activity_author_id – string activity author id, optional. Needed for some sources (e.g. Facebook) to construct the comment permalink.

  • activity – activity object, optional. May avoid an API call if provided.

Returns: dict, ActivityStreams comment object

Raises

ValueError – if any argument is invalid for this source

get_like(activity_user_id, activity_id, like_user_id, activity=None)[source]

Fetches and returns a ‘like’.

Default implementation that fetches the activity and its likes, then searches for a like by the given user. Subclasses should override this if they can optimize the process.

Parameters
  • activity_user_id – string id of the user who posted the original activity

  • activity_id – string activity id

  • like_user_id – string id of the user who liked the activity

  • activity – activity object, optional. May avoid an API call if provided.

Returns: dict, ActivityStreams ‘like’ activity object

get_reaction(activity_user_id, activity_id, reaction_user_id, reaction_id, activity=None)[source]

Fetches and returns a ‘reaction’.

Default implementation that fetches the activity and its reactions, then searches for this specific reaction. Subclasses should override this if they can optimize the process.

Parameters
  • activity_user_id – string id of the user who posted the original activity

  • activity_id – string activity id

  • reaction_user_id – string id of the user who reacted

  • reaction_id – string id of the reaction

  • activity – activity object, optional. May avoid an API call if provided.

Returns: dict, ActivityStreams ‘reaction’ activity object

get_share(activity_user_id, activity_id, share_id, activity=None)[source]

Fetches and returns a ‘share’.

Parameters
  • activity_user_id – string id of the user who posted the original activity

  • activity_id – string activity id

  • share_id – string id of the share object or the user who shared it

  • activity – activity object, optional. May avoid an API call if provided.

Returns: dict, an ActivityStreams ‘share’ activity object

get_rsvp(activity_user_id, event_id, user_id, event=None)[source]

Fetches and returns an RSVP.

Parameters
  • activity_user_id – string id of the user who posted the event. unused.

  • event_id – string event id

  • user_id – string user id

  • event – AS event activity (optional)

Returns: dict, an ActivityStreams RSVP activity object

get_blocklist()[source]

Fetches and returns the current user’s block list.

…ie the users that the current user is blocking. The exact semantics of “blocking” vary from silo to silo.

Returns

sequence of actor objects

get_blocklist_ids()[source]

Returns the current user’s block list as a list of silo-specific user ids.

Returns

sequence of user ids, not globally unique across other sources. May be

integers or strings.

user_to_actor(user)[source]

Converts a user to an actor.

The returned object will have at least a ‘url’ field. If the user has multiple URLs, there will also be a ‘urls’ list field whose elements are dicts with ‘value’: URL.

Parameters

user – dict, a decoded JSON silo user object

Returns

ActivityStreams actor, ready to be JSON-encoded

Return type

dict

static postprocess_activity(activity)[source]

Does source-independent post-processing of an activity, in place.

Right now just populates the title field.

Parameters

activity – activity dict

static postprocess_object(obj)[source]

Does source-independent post-processing of an object, in place.

Populates location.position based on latitude and longitude.

Parameters

object – object dict

classmethod embed_post(obj)[source]

Returns the HTML string for embedding a post object.

Parameters

obj – AS1 dict with at least url, and optionally also content.

Returns: string, HTML

classmethod embed_actor(actor)[source]

Returns the HTML string for embedding an actor object.

tag_uri(name)[source]

Returns a tag URI string for this source and the given string name.

base_object(obj)[source]

Returns the ‘base’ silo object that an object operates on.

For example, if the object is a comment, this returns the post that it’s a comment on. If it’s an RSVP, this returns the event. The id in the returned object is silo-specific, ie not a tag URI.

Subclasses may override this.

Parameters

obj – ActivityStreams object

Returns

dict, minimal ActivityStreams object. Usually has at least id; may also have url, author, etc.

classmethod base_id(url)[source]

Guesses the id of the object in the given URL.

Returns

string, or None

classmethod post_id(url)[source]

Guesses the post id of the given URL.

Returns

string, or None

truncate(content, url, include_link, type=None, quote_url=None)[source]

Shorten text content to fit within a character limit.

Character limit and URL character length are taken from the TRUNCATE_TEXT_LENGTH and TRUNCATE_URL_LENGTH class constants

Parameters
  • content – string

  • url – string

  • include_link – string

  • type – string, optional: ‘article’, ‘note’, etc.

  • quote_url – string URL, optional. If provided, it will be appended to the content, after truncating.

Return: string, the possibly shortened and ellipsized text

__weakref__

list of weak references to the object (if defined)

twitter

Twitter source class.

Uses the v1.1 REST API: https://developer.twitter.com/en/docs/api-reference-index

The Audience Targeting ‘to’ field is set to @public or @private based on whether the tweet author’s ‘protected’ field is true or false. https://dev.twitter.com/docs/platform-objects/users

class granary.twitter.OffsetTzinfo(utc_offset=0)[source]

Bases: tzinfo

A simple, DST-unaware tzinfo from given utc offset in seconds.

__init__(utc_offset=0)[source]

Constructor.

Parameters

utc_offset – Offset of time zone from UTC in seconds

utcoffset(dt)[source]

datetime -> timedelta showing offset from UTC, negative values indicating West of UTC

dst(dt)[source]

datetime -> DST offset as timedelta positive east of UTC.

__weakref__

list of weak references to the object (if defined)

class granary.twitter.Twitter(access_token_key, access_token_secret, username=None, scrape_headers=None)[source]

Bases: Source

Twitter source class. See file docstring and Source class for details.

__init__(access_token_key, access_token_secret, username=None, scrape_headers=None)[source]

Constructor.

Twitter now requires authentication in v1.1 of their API. You can get an OAuth access token by creating an app here: https://dev.twitter.com/apps/new

Parameters
  • access_token_key – string, OAuth access token key

  • access_token_secret – string, OAuth access token secret

  • username – string, optional, the current user. Used in e.g. preview/create.

  • scrape_headers – dict, optional, with string HTTP header keys and values to use when scraping likes

get_actor(screen_name=None)[source]

Returns a user as a JSON ActivityStreams actor dict.

Parameters

screen_name – string username. Defaults to the current user.

get_activities_response(user_id=None, group_id=None, app_id=None, activity_id=None, start_index=0, count=0, etag=None, min_id=None, cache=None, fetch_replies=False, fetch_likes=False, fetch_shares=False, include_shares=True, fetch_events=False, fetch_mentions=False, search_query=None, scrape=False, **kwargs)[source]

Fetches posts and converts them to ActivityStreams activities.

XXX HACK: this is currently hacked for bridgy to NOT pass min_id to the request for fetching activity tweets themselves, but to pass it to all of the requests for filling in replies, retweets, etc. That’s because we want to find new replies and retweets of older initial tweets. TODO: find a better way.

See source.Source.get_activities_response() for details. app_id is ignored. min_id is translated to Twitter’s since_id.

The code for handling ETags (and 304 Not Changed responses and setting If-None-Match) is here, but unused right now since Twitter evidently doesn’t support ETags. From https://dev.twitter.com/discussions/5800 : “I’ve confirmed with our team that we’re not explicitly supporting this family of features.”

Likes (nee favorites) are scraped from twitter.com, since Twitter’s REST API doesn’t offer a way to fetch them. You can also get them from the Streaming API, though, and convert them with streaming_event_to_object(). https://dev.twitter.com/docs/streaming-apis/messages#Events_event

Shares (ie retweets) are fetched with a separate API call per tweet: https://dev.twitter.com/docs/api/1.1/get/statuses/retweets/%3Aid

However, retweets are only fetched for the first 15 tweets that have them, since that’s Twitter’s rate limit per 15 minute window. :( https://dev.twitter.com/docs/rate-limiting/1.1/limits

Quote tweets are fetched by searching for the possibly quoted tweet’s ID, using the OR operator to search up to 5 IDs at a time, and then checking the quoted_status_id_str field https://dev.twitter.com/overview/api/tweets#quoted_status_id_str

Use the group_id @self to retrieve a user_id’s timeline. If user_id is None or @me, it will return tweets for the current API user.

group_id can be used to specify the slug of a list for which to return tweets. By default the current API user’s lists will be used, but lists owned by other users can be fetched by explicitly passing a username to user_id, e.g. to fetch tweets from the list @exampleuser/example-list you would call get_activities(user_id=’exampleuser’, group_id=’example-list’).

Twitter replies default to including a mention of the user they’re replying to, which overloads mentions a bit. When fetch_mentions is True, we determine that a tweet mentions the current user if it @-mentions their username and:

  • it’s not a reply, OR

  • it’s a reply, but not to the current user, AND * the tweet it’s replying to doesn’t @-mention the current user

Raises

NotImplementedError – if fetch_likes is True but scrape_headers was not provided to the constructor.

fetch_replies(activities, min_id=None)[source]

Fetches and injects Twitter replies into a list of activities, in place.

Includes indirect replies ie reply chains, not just direct replies. Searches for @-mentions, matches them to the original tweets with in_reply_to_status_id_str, and recurses until it’s walked the entire tree.

Parameters

activities – list of activity dicts

Returns

same activities list

fetch_mentions(username, tweets, min_id=None)[source]

Fetches a user’s @-mentions and returns them as ActivityStreams.

Tries to only include explicit mentions, not mentions automatically created by @-replying. See the get_activities() docstring for details.

Parameters
  • username – string

  • tweets – list of Twitter API objects. used to find quote tweets quoting them.

  • min_id – only return activities with ids greater than this

Returns

list of activity dicts

get_comment(comment_id, activity_id=None, activity_author_id=None, activity=None)[source]

Returns an ActivityStreams comment object.

Parameters
  • comment_id – string comment id

  • activity_id – string activity id, optional

  • activity_author_id – string activity author id. Ignored.

  • activity – activity object, optional

get_share(activity_user_id, activity_id, share_id, activity=None)[source]

Returns an ActivityStreams ‘share’ activity object.

Parameters
  • activity_user_id – string id of the user who posted the original activity

  • activity_id – string activity id

  • share_id – string id of the share object

  • activity – activity object, optional

get_blocklist()[source]

Returns the current user’s block list.

May make multiple API calls, using cursors, to fully fetch large blocklists. https://dev.twitter.com/overview/api/cursoring

Block lists may have up to 10k users, but each API call only returns 100 at most, and the API endpoint is rate limited to 15 calls per user per 15m. So if a user has >1500 users on their block list, we can’t get the whole thing at once. :(

Returns

sequence of actor objects

Raises
  • source.RateLimited

  • attribute will have the list of user ids we fetched before hitting the

  • limit.

get_blocklist_ids()[source]

Returns the current user’s block list as a list of Twitter user ids.

May make multiple API calls, using cursors, to fully fetch large blocklists. https://dev.twitter.com/overview/api/cursoring

Subject to the same rate limiting as get_blocklist(), but each API call returns ~4k ids, so realistically this can actually fetch blocklists of up to 75k users at once. Beware though, many Twitter users have even more!

Returns

sequence of string Twitter user ids

Raises
  • source.RateLimited

  • attribute will have the list of user ids we fetched before hitting the

  • limit.

create(obj, include_link='omit', ignore_formatting=False)[source]

Creates a tweet, reply tweet, retweet, or favorite.

Parameters
  • obj – ActivityStreams object

  • include_link – string

  • ignore_formatting – boolean

Returns

a CreationResult whose content will be a dict with ‘id’, ‘url’, and ‘type’ keys (all optional) for the newly created Twitter object (or None)

preview_create(obj, include_link='omit', ignore_formatting=False)[source]

Previews creating a tweet, reply tweet, retweet, or favorite.

Parameters
  • obj – ActivityStreams object

  • include_link – string

  • ignore_formatting – boolean

Returns

a CreationResult whose content will be a unicode string HTML snippet (or None)

upload_images(images)[source]

Uploads one or more images from web URLs.

https://dev.twitter.com/rest/reference/post/media/upload

Note that files and JSON bodies in media POST API requests are not included in OAuth signatures. https://developer.twitter.com/en/docs/media/upload-media/uploading-media/media-best-practices

Parameters

images – sequence of AS image objects, eg: [{‘url’: ‘http://picture’, ‘displayName’: ‘a thing’}, …]

Returns

list of string media ids or CreationResult on error

upload_video(url)[source]

Uploads a video from web URLs using the chunked upload process.

Chunked upload consists of multiple API calls:

  • command=INIT, which allocates the media id

  • command=APPEND for each 5MB block, up to 15MB total

  • command=FINALIZE

https://developer.twitter.com/en/docs/media/upload-media/uploading-media/chunked-media-upload

Parameters

url – string URL of images

Returns

string media id or CreationResult on error

delete(id)[source]

Deletes a tweet. The authenticated user must have authored it.

Parameters

id – int or string, tweet id to delete

Returns: CreationResult, content is Twitter API response dict

preview_delete(id)[source]

Previews deleting a tweet.

Parameters

id – int or string, tweet id to delete

Returns: CreationResult

urlopen(url, parse_response=True, **kwargs)[source]

Wraps urllib2.urlopen() and adds an OAuth signature.

base_object(obj)[source]

Returns the ‘base’ silo object that an object operates on.

Includes special handling for Twitter photo and video URLs, e.g. https://twitter.com/nelson/status/447465082327298048/photo/1 https://twitter.com/nelson/status/447465082327298048/video/1

Parameters

obj – ActivityStreams object

Returns

dict, minimal ActivityStreams object. Usually has at least id and url fields; may also have author.

tweet_to_activity(tweet)[source]

Converts a tweet to an activity.

Parameters

tweet – dict, a decoded JSON tweet

Returns

an ActivityStreams activity dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

tweet_to_object(tweet)[source]

Converts a tweet to an object.

Parameters

tweet – dict, a decoded JSON tweet

Returns

an ActivityStreams object dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

user_to_actor(user)[source]

Converts a user to an actor.

Parameters

user – dict, a decoded JSON Twitter user

Returns

an ActivityStreams actor dict, ready to be JSON-encoded

retweet_to_object(retweet)[source]

Converts a retweet to a share activity object.

Parameters

retweet – dict, a decoded JSON tweet

Returns

an ActivityStreams object dict

streaming_event_to_object(event)[source]

Converts a Streaming API event to an object.

https://dev.twitter.com/docs/streaming-apis/messages#Events_event

Right now, only converts favorite events to like objects.

Parameters

event – dict, a decoded JSON Streaming API event

Returns

an ActivityStreams object dict

static rfc2822_to_iso8601(time_str)[source]

Converts a timestamp string from RFC 2822 format to ISO 8601.

Example RFC 2822 timestamp string generated by Twitter:

‘Wed May 23 06:01:13 +0000 2007’

Resulting ISO 8610 timestamp string:

‘2007-05-23T06:01:13’

user_url(username)[source]

Returns the Twitter URL for a given user.

status_url(username, id)[source]

Returns the Twitter URL for a tweet from a given user with a given id.

tweet_url(tweet)[source]

Returns the Twitter URL for a tweet given a tweet object.